PCOSCO – Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Detailed Guide Causes, Treatment, Types, Health Risks

Polycystic ovarian syndrome, sometimes PCOS, is a common hormonal disorder in females. The strong androgen production of the ovaries is what distinguishes it. Women typically have deficient levels of androgens. The increase causes several health problems and severe risks for PCOSCO sufferers.

When the ovaries develop several tiny cysts, polycystic ovarian syndrome results. These cysts are filled with fluid. Cysts are absent in certain PCOSCO women. Ovulation is the process through which an egg emerges from an ovary. This occurs so a male sperm may fertilize it. When a woman has her period, the egg that wasn’t fertilized leaves the body.

Rarely, a woman might not produce enough hormones to be able to ovulate. A woman’s ovaries may produce a lot of little cysts if she doesn’t ovulate. These cysts produce masculine hormones called androgens. Androgen levels in the bodies of PCOS-afflicted women are frequently high. In addition to other PSOCSO-related issues, it results in irregular menstrual cycles.

Symptoms of PCOS

PCOS symptoms could include:

  • Armpit and neck skin tags
  • Periods that are erratic, nonexistent, or incredibly faint
  • Large or numerous ovarian cysts
  • Body hair that is too thick, especially on the breast, stomach, and back (hirsutism)
  • Gaining weight, especially around the stomach (abdomen)
  • Acne-prone or oily skin
  • Baldness with a male pattern or thinning hair
  • Skin blemishes in the armpits, back of the neck, and behind the breasts 

What are the PCOS Causes?

PCOS’s underlying cause is unknown. However, studies have found that women with PCOSCO share some characteristics in common.

• Insufficient Insulin

In PCOS women, insulin resistance is typical. It shows that the body is unable to utilize insulin properly. Increasing insulin levels could increase androgen levels in the body. Additionally, obesity might raise insulin levels, which exacerbates symptoms.

A pancreatic hormone called insulin controls blood sugar levels. It aids in getting glucose into the cells from the bloodstream. Eventually, it is converted into energy. The inability of the body’s tissues to react to insulin is known as insulin resistance. The body produces more insulin as a result of elevated blood sugar levels.

The ovaries overproduce testosterone due to high insulin levels, which stunts the growth of the follicles (the egg-producing sacs in the ovaries) and ovulation cycles. Insulin resistance, which results in weight gain, can worsen POCOS symptoms by encouraging the body to create more insulin.

• Hormone Imbalance

Hormonal abnormalities are common in PCOS patients and include:

  • Increased levels of testosterone.
  • In small concentrations, women have the male hormone testosterone.
  • It is also anticipated that luteinizing hormone (LH) levels will rise.
  • Although it promotes ovulation, excessive consumption of this substance may be hazardous to a woman’s reproductive health.
  • Low blood levels of SHBG, a protein that binds sex hormones.
  • A blood protein called this binds to testosterone and lessens its effects.
  • The amount of prolactin has increased. Prolactin stimulates the breast glands to produce milk during pregnancy.
  • What causes these hormone levels is unknown. According to some theories, the issue may originate in the ovary, other glands that make these hormones, or the part of the brain that manages their production. The alterations may also be influenced by insulin resistance.

• Genetics

PCOS is heritable. Your chances are raised if your close family members, such as your mother, sister, or aunt, have POCOS. 

What is the meaning of polycystic ovary syndrome?

One of the most prevalent endocrine diseases affects over 500,000 women of reproductive age in the US. It can cause infertility and other reproductive issues for women and can be identified by more giant, fluid-filled cysts on the ovaries.

Insulin resistance, obesity, and type 2 diabetes are all frequently connected to this disorder. Several comorbid illnesses are believed to influence the onset and severity of POCOS. The fact that this sickness commonly looks like other medical conditions make it challenging to diagnose.

To determine whether you have it, your doctor will perform a physical examination and may recommend testing to look for hormonal anomalies. Your doctor might suggest treatments to ease your symptoms if you have PCOS. 

Some Common Types of PCOS

There are numerous varieties, and each has a unique set of comorbidities. A few examples of comorbidities are:

Insulin sensitivity

Overt androgenism (high levels of male hormones)

Anovarial cycles (lack of ovulation)

Overweight or obesity

Diabetes mellitus type II

Heart conditions

Cognitive dysfunction

Psychiatric conditions like depression and anxiety

Associated Health Risks with PCOS

Not all women with PCOS will have specific health issues, even though having POCOS increases your risk of developing them. Because of this, it’s crucial to routinely have your health examined by a physician with experience treating women. Every six months, you should schedule an appointment with your doctor. To ensure everything is in order, check your health every six months. Here are a few long-term health dangers associated with the condition:


One of the things that go together the most frequently is this. This is probably because being overweight increases your risk of developing type 2 diabetes and other chronic illnesses, including cancer, heart disease, and stroke.

Diabetes type 2:

Another comorbidity that frequently occurs is diabetes. Having diabetes increases your risk of developing pregnancy-related complications such as gestational diabetes and high blood pressure. Additionally, it can result in insulin resistance, one of the leading causes of PCOS.

Having diabetes when pregnant:

This is seen in about 50% of women with polycystic ovary syndrome. After the baby is born, gestational diabetes typically disappears, but it can occasionally progress to type II diabetes.

Low birthrate or infertility:

One of the most prevalent causes of infertility in women is treatable. It is challenging for eggs to develop and emerge from the ovaries in women due to a hormonal imbalance in their bodies (ovulation). You cannot get pregnant if you don’t ovulate.

Cancer of the Uterus:

Women who take PCOSCOS are 6% more likely to get endometrial cancer before menopause. Being overweight, having too much insulin in the blood (hyperinsulinemia), and having diabetes—all common in women with PCOS—are the main risk factors for endometrial cancer.

Abnormal hormone levels, such as those caused by excess estrogen, testosterone, or insufficient progesterone, are also associated with POCOS. This hormonal imbalance can lead to several forms of endometrial cancer.

Obstructive Snoring (OSA):

A common and severe sleep problem called obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) causes you to stop breathing during the night. Your airway frequently becomes clogged while you sleep if you have OSA. This limits the amount of air that enters your lungs.

According to one study, women with PCOS have a 5–10 times higher risk of having OSA than women without POCOS. The term “electronic commerce” refers to online product and service sales. According to research, women are more prone to experience sleep issues or daytime fatigue. These might be signs of OSA.

Depression or Tension:

A woman with polycystic ovaries may put on weight, raising her stress hormones. Compared to women without PCOS, women are also more prone to experience anxiety. This is probably because PCOS can make balancing hormones and having children challenging. Women frequently experience mood fluctuations, which can make them fearful or depressed. 

PCOS Prevention

Women of reproductive age are affected by the disease known as PCOS. It affects your hormones and can cause high blood pressure, obesity, and difficulty conceiving. You have a lot of options for helping to keep your condition under control. Here are five preventative strategies:

1. Maintain a healthy diet. Ensure you get enough whole grains, lean protein sources, fruits, and veggies.

2. Regular exercise. Exercise not only aids in weight loss and overall health improvement but also lowers the risk of getting by normalizing hormone levels.

3. Keep your level of tension low. Hormone changes brought on by excessive stress can result in PCOS symptoms. De-stressing and relaxing regularly will help you control your body’s natural cycles.

4. Have any medical disorders causing your PCOS symptoms been treated? Polycystic ovarian syndrome may be caused by conditions that affect hormone balance, such as thyroid illness or diabetes.

5. For at least two years, keep a menstrual cycle diary.  This will allow you to monitor any changes in your symptoms and progress toward prevention. 

Consuming Food

Below is a list of items to avoid if you have PCOSCO symptoms.

  • Leafy Green Vegetables

Green leafy vegetables are an excellent choice regardless of your diet. They are nutrient-dense and low in calories, making them great for nutrition and weight loss. However, because they contain significant levels of Vitamin B, green leafy meals like kale or spinach are advantageous for POCOS patients. Amazingly, more than 80% of individuals have low vitamin B levels.

  • Eat foods with a low glycemic index (GI)

As a result of the body’s slower digestion of low GI meals, compared to other foods, such as carbs, they do not fast or significantly increase insulin levels. A low GI diet includes whole grains, legumes, nuts, seeds, fruits, starchy vegetables, and other unprocessed, low-carbohydrate foods.

  • The Beneficial Fats

Obesity is not always a cause of PCOSCO. Furthermore, not all fats are harmful to your health. Healthy fats are essential for eating with PCOS and can be found in many foods, such as avocados and fatty fish. Healthy fats contain fatty acids, which are essential for maintaining cell membranes. Additionally, they are vital for maintaining a healthy hormone balance and regulating weight. Fatty acids are vital to pregnancy and fertility, two critical concerns for women. Hormone homeostasis is supported by the fatty acid omega 3, which is found in foods like fish and flax seeds. 

Exercise for PCOS

PCOS can benefit from moderate exercises, such as brisk walking, running, cycling, or swimming. Women who have PCOSCO must exercise every day. Low mood is also frequently linked to PCOS. Exercise can increase serotonin production, lifting your spirits and fortifying your body. Weight management, symptoms of despair and anxiety, and an increase in the menstrual cycle and ovulation frequency can all be helped with daily exercise of at least 30 minutes.

  • Strengthening Exercises

These activities help to improve body composition, increase metabolic rate, and reduce insulin resistance. They cause less fat tissue and increased muscle tissue. Bodyweight exercises like push-ups, squats, and tricep dips improve insulin function and elevate metabolism by boosting muscle development.

More muscle implies burning more calories when exercising and even when not exercising. The most efficient method for developing a lean body, maintaining a healthy BMI, and reducing your risk of chronic diseases like type 2 diabetes is to combine strength training with aerobic activity.

  • HIIT

Alternating between brief bursts of intense work and lower-intensity rest between intervals is necessary. It’s a quick way to raise your cardiovascular fitness and has additional benefits for. A vigorous spin bike workout burns more calories and reduces belly fat than a brisk walk. Reducing excess testosterone and enhancing insulin sensitivity can help you lose 5 to 10% of your body weight, which has been found in trials to lessen the symptoms of PCOS. 


A common endocrine system condition called polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) can lead to various major health issues. Even though cannot be cured, early diagnosis and treatment can help manage the symptoms and reduce the chance of developing other health issues. If you suspect you might have PCOS, discuss getting examined with your doctor.

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